.

  • Written by Clare Collins, Professor in Nutrition and Dietetics, University of Newcastle
Whether you're eating red meat or white meat, a lean cut is the healthier way to go. From shutterstock.com

You’ve probably heard eating too much fatty red meat is bad for your health, while lean meat and chicken are better choices. So, recent headlines claiming white meat is just as bad for your cholesterol levels as red meat might have surprised you.

The reports were triggered by a paper published in the The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition earlier this month.

The study did find lean white meat had the same effect on cholesterol levels as lean red meat. While this might be construed as good news by lovers of red meat, more research on this topic is needed for a clearer picture.

How was this study conducted?

The researchers set out to compare three diets: one where the main dietary source of protein came from eating red meat (beef and pork), another where it came from poultry (chicken and turkey), and a third where it came from plant foods (legumes, nuts, grains and soy products).

They wanted to measure the impact of these diets on specific categories of blood fats, as markers of heart disease risk. They tested blood fat markers including low density lipoprotein cholesterol (or LDL, commonly known as “bad cholesterol”), apolipoprotein B (apoB), and the ratio of total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein cholesterol (or HDL, commonly known as “good cholesterol”).


Read more: How to get the nutrients you need without eating as much red meat


The researchers also wanted to know whether blood fat levels changed more when the background dietary patterns were high in saturated fat, derived mostly from full-fat dairy products and butter, or when they were low in saturated fat.

To achieve this, 177 adults with blood cholesterol levels in the normal range were randomised to follow either a high-saturated fat diet (14% of total energy intake) or a low-saturated fat diet (7% of total energy intake).

Within these two groups they were further randomly assigned to follow three separate diets for four weeks each: red meat, white meat, and plant protein sources. The main protein sources in the meat groups came from lean cuts of red and white meat. In the plant diet, protein came from legumes, nuts, grains and soy products.

Participants met research staff weekly to collect their food products and received counselling on following their specified diet. Participants were asked to maintain their physical activity level and keep their weight as stable as possible so these factors did not bias the results.

To eliminate any carry-over effects from eating one type of protein to the next, participants were given between two and seven weeks break in between each diet and told to return to their usual eating patterns.


Read more: Organic, grass fed and hormone-free: does this make red meat any healthier?


What did the study find?

Some participants dropped out along the way, so in the end researchers had results from 113 participants.

Blood concentrations of LDL cholesterol and apoB were lower following the plant protein diet period, compared to both the red and white meat periods. This was independent of whether participants were on a background diet of high- or low-saturated fat.

There was no statistically significant difference in the blood fat levels of those eating red meat compared to those eating white meat.

We’re often told to limit our consumption of red meat. From shutterstock.com

Eating a diet high in saturated fat led to significant increases in blood levels of LDL cholesterol, apoB, and large LDL particles compared with a background diet low in saturated fat.

So, all the dietary protein sources as well as the level of saturated fat intake had significant effects on total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, and apoB levels.

How should we interpret the results?

Although the test diets only lasted four weeks each, this study is important. It’s rare to see intervention studies that directly compare eating different types of meat and sources of protein and the impact on heart-disease risk factors. This is partly due to the challenge and expense of providing the food and getting people to follow specific diets.

Most studies to date have been cohort studies where people are categorised based on what they eat, then followed up for many years to see what happens to their health.

One review of cohort studies found no greater risk of stroke in those who eat more poultry compared to less poultry, while another showed a higher risk of stroke among those eating more red and processed meat relative to poultry intake.


Read more: Should we eat red meat? The nutrition and the ethics


There are a few things to keep in mind with this study. First, the researchers used the leanest cuts of both red and white meats, and removed all visible fat and skin. If participants were eating fatty meat, we may have seen different results.

The significant variation in breaks between different diets (ranging from two to seven weeks) may have also affected the results. Participants with a longer break would have had more time for their blood cholesterol levels to change, compared to those with shorter breaks.

Finally, in reporting their results, it would have been better to include all 177 participants who began the study. People who drop out often have different health characteristics and leaving them out may have biased results.

This short-term study does not provide evidence that choosing lean white meat over red meat is either better or worse for your health.

But the findings are consistent with recommendations from the Heart Foundation to include a variety of plant-based foods in our diets, foods containing healthy types of fat and lower amounts of saturated fat, and in particular, to choose lean red meat and poultry.

Blind peer review

The article presents a fair, balanced and accurate assessment of the study. In this study, they showed lean red meat and lean white meat (with all visible fat and skin removed) had the same effect on blood fat levels.

Importantly, plant protein sources (such as legumes, nuts, grains and soy products) lowered blood fat levels compared to the red and white meats, and this was independent of whether the participants had been placed on a background diet low or high in saturated fats. This study did not look at the impact of a fish-based diet on blood fats. – Evangeline Mantzioris


Read more: Three charts on: Australia's declining taste for beef and growing appetite for chicken


Research Checks interrogate newly published studies and how they’re reported in the media. The analysis is undertaken by one or more academics not involved with the study, and reviewed by another, to make sure it’s accurate.

Clare Collins is affiliated with the Priority Research Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition, the University of Newcastle, NSW. She is an NHMRC Senior Research and Gladys M Brawn Research Fellow. She has received research grants from NHMRC, ARC, Hunter Medical Research Institute, Meat and Livestock Australia, Diabetes Australia, Heart Foundation, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, nib foundation, Rijk Zwaan Australia and Greater Charitable Foundation. She has consulted to SHINE Australia, Novo Nordisk, Quality Bakers, the Sax Institute and the ABC. She was a team member conducting systematic reviews to inform the Australian Dietary Guidelines update and 2017 evidence review on dietary patterns for the Heart Foundation.

Evangeline Mantzioris does not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organisation that would benefit from this article, and has disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond their academic appointment.

Authors: Clare Collins, Professor in Nutrition and Dietetics, University of Newcastle

Read more http://theconversation.com/research-check-is-white-meat-as-bad-for-your-cholesterol-levels-as-red-meat-118390

Better pay and more challenge: here's how to get our top students to become teachers

Relative to other careers, bright students who were surveyed didn't see teaching as coming with career challenges. www.shutterstock.comAustralia’s young high achievers are turning their backs o...

Peter Goss, School Education Program Director, Grattan Institute - avatar Peter Goss, School Education Program Director, Grattan Institute

Does anyone have a pad? TV is finally dismantling the period taboo

New attitudes show periods might finally be coming of age. July Prokopiv/ShutterstockLast week, menstrual pad brand Libra launched their Blood Normal commercial in Australia, running it during prime ...

Lara Owen, PhD Candidate, Monash University - avatar Lara Owen, PhD Candidate, Monash University

How doctors convinced the world the planet was worth fighting for

International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, which won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1985, is one example of doctors' involvement on the political stage. Wellcome Images/Wikimedia CommonsLas...

James Dunk, Research Fellow, University of Sydney - avatar James Dunk, Research Fellow, University of Sydney

After 2 festival deaths, the NSW government rushed through a new drug homicide crime. But it may do more harm than good

The first of its kind in Australia, the offence of 'drug supply causing death' carries a maximum 20 year sentence. ShutterstockAs the state election loomed last year, the NSW government rushed through...

Elyse Methven, Lecturer in Law, University of Technology Sydney - avatar Elyse Methven, Lecturer in Law, University of Technology Sydney

Voter turnout at New Zealand local elections keeps falling, but paying people to vote could backfire

Rather than encouraging people to become better citizens, rewards and fines can actually reduce peoples’ natural tendencies to do the right thing by others. from www.shutterstock.com, CC BY-NDLa...

Julia Talbot-Jones, Lecturer, Victoria University of Wellington - avatar Julia Talbot-Jones, Lecturer, Victoria University of Wellington

The digital human: the cyber version of humanity's quest for immortality

If it were possible to download the neural networks of a human brain, could we preserve a computer simulation of that person? from www.shutterstock.com, CC BY-NDImmortality has been a topic of discuss...

David Evans Bailey, PhD Researcher in Virtual Reality, Auckland University of Technology - avatar David Evans Bailey, PhD Researcher in Virtual Reality, Auckland University of Technology

Three ways to fix the problems caused by rezoning inner-city industrial land for mixed-use apartments

Show Works, based in the Melbourne suburb of Preston, makes dance floors, dance equipment and theatre scenery. Andrew Warren, used with permission, Author providedSince 2000, planning authorities in A...

Carl Grodach, Professor and Director of Urban Planning & Design, Monash University - avatar Carl Grodach, Professor and Director of Urban Planning & Design, Monash University

Interesting Ways to Have Fun Without Leaving Your House

Having fun isn’t synonymous to going out. This is what a lot of people should know if they’re looking to do fun things without leaving the comfort of their homes. The truth is that spending time...

News Company - avatar News Company

Become Independent and Install a Solar Power System in your Property

We are certainly living in a very exciting time, and when you consider the technological advances we have witnessed in the last 50 years, it really is amazing. In the 1960s, the Internet emerged and...

News Company - avatar News Company

The Amazon is on fire – here are 5 things you need to know

Huge fires are raging across multiple regions of the Amazon Basin. Guaira Maia/ISARecord fires are raging in Brazil’s Amazon rainforest, with more than 2,500 fires currently burning. They are ...

Danilo Ignacio de Urzedo, PhD candidate, University of Sydney - avatar Danilo Ignacio de Urzedo, PhD candidate, University of Sydney

It's not just athletes who get Achilles tendon pain, but exercising is the answer

Basketball fans around the world were recently sickened by the footage of NBA star Kevin Durant’s Achilles tendon rupturing during a game. But while many think it’s only elite athletes...

Sean Docking, Post-doctoral researcher, La Trobe University - avatar Sean Docking, Post-doctoral researcher, La Trobe University

Australia's energy woes will not be solved by reinforcing a monopoly

Australia's energy market has a logjam, Sean Davis/Flickr, CC BY-NC-SAThe possibility of blackouts affecting half of Victoria has attracted plenty of attention to a document once read only by industry...

Bruce Mountain, Director, Victoria Energy Policy Centre, Victoria University - avatar Bruce Mountain, Director, Victoria Energy Policy Centre, Victoria University

Tim Fischer had his blind spots, but he was an unsung champion of an Asian-facing Australia

Amid the tributes to former deputy prime minister Tim Fischer and the stories of his authenticity, courage and quirky interests – like trains and military history – what has struck me most...

Tim Harcourt, J.W. Nevile Fellow in Economics and host of The Airport Economist, UNSW - avatar Tim Harcourt, J.W. Nevile Fellow in Economics and host of The Airport Economist, UNSW

VIDEO: Michelle Grattan on Tim Fischer's legacy - and Scott Morrison's first year

Michelle Grattan talks about the sad news of the passing of former Deputy Prime Minister Tim Fischer with University of Canberra Vice-Chancellor Professor Deep Saini. They also discuss Scott Morrison&...

Michelle Grattan, Professorial Fellow, University of Canberra - avatar Michelle Grattan, Professorial Fellow, University of Canberra

Catastrophic Queensland floods killed 600,000 cattle and devastated native species

In February, about 600,000 cattle were killed by catastrophic flooding across north Queensland’s Carpentaria Gulf plains. The flood waters rose suddenly, forming a wall of water up to 70km wi...

Gabriel Crowley, Adjunct Principal Research Fellow, James Cook University - avatar Gabriel Crowley, Adjunct Principal Research Fellow, James Cook University

Four home traps that contribute to the gender pay gap

KPMG says Australia's gender pay gap declined from $3.05 an hour in 2014 to $2.43 in 2017. www.shutterstock.comAustralia’s gender pay gap is diminishing, says a new report, but some contributors...

Emma Willamson, Adjunct Senior Research Fellow, Monash University - avatar Emma Willamson, Adjunct Senior Research Fellow, Monash University

Australia wants to install military technology in Antarctica – here's why that's allowed

Technology, such as satellite systems, can be used for both military and scientific purposes. ShutterstockThis week, the ABC revealed that the Australian Defence Force wants to roll out military tech...

Tony Press, Adjunct Professor, Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania - avatar Tony Press, Adjunct Professor, Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania

Why some feminists oppose allowing people to choose their sex on birth certificates

Legislation in Victoria would allow people to change the sex on their birth certificates with just a declaration, not sex reassignment surgery. ShutterstockA bill currently before the Victorian parlia...

Holly Lawford-Smith, Senior Lecturer in Political Philosophy, University of Melbourne - avatar Holly Lawford-Smith, Senior Lecturer in Political Philosophy, University of Melbourne

Plants are going extinct up to 350 times faster than the historical norm

Plant extinctions have skyrocketed, driven in large part by land clearing and climate change. Graphic Node/Unsplash, CC BY-SAEarth is seeing an unprecedented loss of species, which some ecologists are...

Jaco Le Roux, Associate Professor, Macquarie University - avatar Jaco Le Roux, Associate Professor, Macquarie University

Sick and Tired of Your Dead End Job? Try Teaching!

Tired of the same old grind at the office? Want an opportunity to impact lives both in your community and around the world? Do you love to travel and have new experiences? Teaching English is the perfect job for you! All you need is a willingness to ...

News Company - avatar News Company

The Impact of an Aging Population in Australia

There’s an issue on the horizon that Australia needs to prepare for. The portion of elderly citizens that make up the country’s overall population is increasing, and we might not have the infrastructure in place to support this. Australians h...

News Company - avatar News Company

LifeStyle

Interesting Ways to Have Fun Without Leaving Your House

Having fun isn’t synonymous to going out. This is what a lot of people should know if they’re ...

A Guide for Tenants

The cost of purchasing a home has been increasing, and the size of deposits needed, make buying pr...

Top ways for men to look after their skin

According to Jack Simmons, from Aboutmen, more and more men are taking pride in their appearance a...

Top 10 Caravan Storage Tips & Tricks

Taking caravan trips is a popular Aussie pastime, but if you have spent more than a few days in ...